Colonisation, often preceded by exploration or trading ventures, has occurred over thousands of years. This unit examined colonisation at various times throughout history.
In this unit, we looked at the concept of colonisation the influence of colonisation on Australia as well as the world.
This is the summary of the mightiest colonisers of the world from 1100BC to 1914AD.
|1100 BC - AD 1000
Mighty colonising groups such as the Romans, the Vikings, Great Britain, France or Spain were often motivated by the desire for power and the control of valuable resources, such as land or precious metals. For example, while English, as a poor country, built up its colonies to expand trade and earn profit, the Spanish intended to find more people to convert into Christianity in the new colonies. The Vikings explored new lands because they had no land in their homelands for farming.
In different time periods, different resources were the impetus for colonisation. For example, early colonisers before 14th century usually explored new lands to find lands, spices, gold or trading posts, while later colonisers from the 14th century looked for something else. Early colonisation was often centred around the Mediterranean sea due to its better lands for farming and a favourable place for settlement. However, from the 14th to 17th century, when the colonisation became more popular, it became a means for some countries to achieve power, to gain military control or to expand territory, rather than just to find lands.
Most of the explorers and colonisers came from the countries which were located near the ocean, such as Denmark, England, Greek. Living near the sea, they mastered the ship-building technique, map-making technique and navigation better than other countries. This made it easier for them to go to the ocean and explore the world.
This unit also explores how technological advancement influenced people's ability to travel around the Earth. When people can make stronger ships, they can sail much further can discover new territories. The expansion of the Vikings into Europe started after they were able to make the longship. The better mapmaking also helped many voyages to circumnavigate the world. In return, many voyages across the ocean also helped draw a more detailed map of the world.
During colonisation history, we can see that different groups of people can have different perspectives of the same events. For example, when the British came to Australia to build a penal colony, they hoped to build up a new colony where the indigenous people could be 'civilised'. However, what happened was not what the British expected. Many Aboriginals died and became dependent on the European lifestyle. And the Aboriginals thought very badly about them. In general, while exploration of the Australian continent provided Europeans with the means by which to satisfy individual and group needs, the impact of exploration also changed the way in which the indigenous people satisfied their individual and group needs.
This is also what happened between the colonisers and their colonised countries from 14th to 19th century. Three powerful colonisers of the world were Spain, England and France.
When these countries invaded new lands, they usually applied the force labour system and many natives were forced to work in the plantations, farm stocks or mines. To protect its right and prevent the development of the colonies, France and France imposed the policy in which only the parent country was allowed to trade with its colonies. This way, the colonies can provide the raw materials and cheap labour to the parent country. They were also the markets for the manufactured products from the parent country.
In general, colonisation has left many legacies to the present world in the fields of language, culture, architecture and environment. Many types of foods, animals and vegetables were introduced to new lands anytime the colonisers explored a new land. Many countries in the world now have English, French or Spanish as their first language and use the similar education system with those of English. England and France also build up more roads and transport systems in the countries they colonised. As a consequence of colonisation, many mixed races also appeared due to the blending of one group of population with another.