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The language mode of Speaking and Listening refers to any text that you will either listen to or speak (respond to or compose). This can include any number of texts. A list is provided below. It is by no means exhaustive but does provide a guide for the type of texts that you may encounter. It is important that you realise that a text may be multimedia in which case more than one language mode can be used. To understand multimedia texts you will need to have a firm understanding of each language mode that is used. You should also be aware that the language mode of Speaking and Listening refers not only to the words that have been spoken but also to any variety of sounds and sound effects that can enhance meaning.

Examples of spoken texts

Examples of multimedia texts that incorporate spoken elements

  • Conversations
  • Speeches
  • Lectures
  • Radio news reports
  • Radio advertisements
  • Radio plays
  • Radio programmes
  • Songs (without text lyrics)
  • Debates
  • Talking books
  • Television advertisements
  • Films
  • Plays

Each of these examples, and any spoken text, have specific meanings and purposes. Effective spoken texts express their ideas in ways that enhance (improve) meaning. In this unit you will learn about and practise the concepts and language features and techniques that composers use to shape meaning.

Your goals should be to become proficient in the following skills.

  • Recognising and identifying features and techniques and concepts within a spoken text.
  • Understanding and explaining how these features and concepts shape the meaning of the text.
  • Gaining experience through the meaning expressed in texts.
  • Placing these texts within a context and evaluating the effectiveness of the text.

At the same time you need to be able to use the following skills.

  • Use features and techniques and concepts within your own compositions to enhance meaning.
  • Express your own experiences, opinions and ideas through compositions.
  • Speak effectively according to text, form, purpose and audience in a wide variety of contexts.


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